The British tradition of public administration is aristocratic, the French is republican. This difference persists today beneath the practice of meritocratic selection common to both countries. It is reflected in the greater importance of social class in recruitment to the higher ranks of the British civil service. Educational reforms designed to increase access have run up against the persistence of the British class structure, giving a strong social bias to ‘selection by ability’. This is true in both schools and universities. The best efforts of reformers to remove parental advantage from the recruitment of top civil servants has been undermined by social attitudes with deep historic roots.
Absent from today’s discussion is the
1.Most countries have devoted considerable attention to the education of their rulers. These were traditionally drawn from the aristocracy, but since the 19th century, selection for the public service has generally been based on merit. Candidates for the higher civil service had to pass examinations for which they were prepared at elite institutions.
2.A country in transition, seeking to build up an administrative structure of high ability and integrity, can draw some instructive lessons from the experience of successful administrative systems elsewhere. The key question is: what structure of education, secondary and higher, best conduces to a high level of performance and honesty in government? I believe that the way Britain and
Tuesday, March 20, 2007
Our starting point is the breakdown of the theory and to some extent the practice of state sovereignty under the impact of globalization. The doctrine of state sovereignty has been increasingly qualified. Sovereignty, it is said, is being undermined from above by the emergence of institutions of global governance, and from below by transnational movements and NGOs. The right to intervene coercively in what had hitherto been regarded as the domestic affairs of states is now being asserted for various contingencies, the most notable being when states sponsor terrorist groups or perpetuate or allow mass murder. The doctrine of state sovereignty is being modified in practice. The development of the hybrid European Union is one example;
Future of Europe
Moscow School of Political Studies
| Tuesday, July 27, 2004
I would like to speak about the three most discussed issue about the future of the European Union today.
The first concerns the European Constitution.
The second concerns foreign and defence policy
The third concerns the future of the Euro
I will conclude briefly about how all this may affect Russia.
The New Constitution
First, the EU has a new Constitution. This was agreed at the Brussels Conference on 18 June of this year. Agreed, but not ratified. A number of countries, including Britain and France, will hold referenda on ratification, probably next year.
Constitutions are associated with creating governments. But the European Constitution is mainly a consolidation of existing treaties into one, 370 page, document. The
US Current Account Deficit and Future of the World Monetary System
'Sixty Years After Bretton Woods: Developing a Vision for the Future' - Reinventing Bretton Woods, Rome Conference 2004
| Thursday, July 22, 2004
This paper seeks to challenge the conventional view that generalised floating is the desirable and inevitable goal of the international monetary system.
It argues that the breakdown of 20th century fixed exchange-rate systems was due more to the privileged position of the United States in the system than to inherent weaknesses arising from domestic political pressures or financial liberalisation. Specifically, the position of the dollar in the world economy has enabled the USA at various moments to print dollars without limit to finance its preferred pattern of spending. This has created unsustainable imbalances whose liquidation requires periodic changes of regime. The problem of adjustment is not solved by generalizedContinue reading...